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Monocrystalline silicon
- Jan 05, 2019 -

Monocrystalline silicon overview
Monocrystalline silicon is a relatively active non-metallic element and an important component of crystalline materials, at the forefront of the development of new materials. Its main use is as a semiconductor material and the use of solar photovoltaic power generation, heating [1] and so on. Due to the advantages of clean, environmental protection and convenience, solar energy technology has made great progress in research and development, commercial production and market development in the past 30 years, and has become one of the fast-growing and stable development of the world.
Main use of monocrystalline silicon
Monocrystalline silicon is mainly used to fabricate semiconductor components.

Uses: It is the raw material for manufacturing semiconductor silicon devices, used to manufacture high power rectifiers, high power transistors, diodes, switching devices, etc.

When the molten elemental silicon solidifies, the silicon atoms are arranged in a diamond lattice to form a plurality of crystal nuclei. If these nuclei grow into crystal grains having the same crystal plane orientation, the crystal grains are combined in parallel to crystallize into single crystal silicon.

Monocrystalline silicon is usually produced by first preparing polycrystalline silicon or amorphous silicon, and then growing rod-shaped single crystal silicon from the melt by a Czochralski method or a suspension zone melting method.

Single crystal silicon rods are the raw materials for the production of monocrystalline silicon wafers. With the rapid increase in the demand for monocrystalline silicon wafers in domestic and international markets, the market demand for monocrystalline silicon rods is also growing rapidly.

The single crystal silicon wafer is divided into 6 inches, 8 inches, 12 inches (300 mm), and 18 inches (450 mm) according to its diameter. The larger the diameter of the wafer, the more integrated circuits that can be engraved, and the lower the cost of the chip. But the requirements for materials and technology for larger wafers are higher. Single crystal silicon is divided into a Czochralski method (CZ), a zone melting method (FZ) and an epitaxial method according to the crystal elongation method. The straight-drawing method and the zone melting method elongate the single crystal silicon rod, and the epitaxial method elongates the single crystal silicon film. The Czochralski extended single crystal silicon is mainly used for semiconductor integrated circuits, diodes, epitaxial wafer substrates, and solar cells. The crystal diameter can be controlled at Φ3~8 inches. The zone melting single crystal is mainly used in the field of high voltage and high power controllable rectifier devices, and is widely used in series of products such as high power transmission and transformation, electric locomotive, rectification, frequency conversion, electromechanical integration, energy saving lamps and televisions. The crystal diameter can be controlled at Φ3~6 inches. Epitaxial wafers are mainly used in the field of integrated circuits.

Czochralski (CZ) single crystal silicon materials are the most widely used due to cost and performance reasons. The materials used in the IC industry are mainly CZ polishing sheets and epitaxial wafers. Memory circuits typically use CZ pads because of the lower cost. Logic circuits typically use higher cost epitaxial wafers because of their better applicability in IC fabrication and the ability to eliminate Latch-up.

The larger the diameter of the silicon wafer, the higher the technical requirements, the more market prospects, the higher the value.